This list is sorted chronologically according to when the entry was first published, whether in print or online. Last update: June 7, 2021.


  1. Gundersen, J. K., Chakkarapani, E., Jary, S., Menassa, D. A., Scull-Brown, E., Frymoyer, A., Thoresen, M. Morphine and fentanyl exposure during therapeutic hypothermia does not impair neurodevelopment. EClinicalMedicine. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100892.
  2. Thoresen M., Jary, S., Walløe, L., Karlsson, M., Martinez-Biarge, M., Chakkarapani, E., & Cowan, F. M. MRI combined with early clinical variables are excellent outcome predictors for newborn infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia. EClinicalMedicine. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100885.
  3. Spencer APC, Brooks JCW, Masuda N, Byrne H, Lee-Kelland R, Jary S, Thoresen M, Tonks J, Goodfellow M, Cowan FM, Chakkarapani E. Disrupted brain connectivity in children treated with therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. Neuroimage Clin. 2021 Feb 10;30:102582. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102582. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33636541; PMCID: PMC7906894.


  1. Phillips T, Menassa DA, Grant S, Cohen N, Thoresen M. Xenon Gas Inhalation Reduces Neuropathology in Neonates in a Maternal Model of Hypoxia. E-pub 18.7.2020. Acta Paediatr. 2020;10.1111/apa.15486.
  2. Wood T R, Gundersen J, Falck M, Maes E, Osredkar D, Løberg EM, Sabir H, Walløe L, Thoresen M. Variability and sex-dependence of hypothermic neuroprotection in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury: a single laboratory meta-analysis. Scientific Reports
  3. Dingley J, Okano S, Lee-Kelland R, Scull-Brown E, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M. Closed circuit xenon delivery for 72h in neonatal piglets following hypoxic insult using an ambient pressure automated control system: Development, technical evaluation and pulmonary effects. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0224447. journal.pone.0224447


  1. Lee-Kelland R, Jary S, Cowan F M, Tonks J, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M. School-age outcomes of children without cerebral palsy cooled for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in 2008-2010. Archives of disease in Childhood; Fetal and Neonatal Edition. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-316509.
  2. Gunn AJ, Thoresen M. Neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
    Handb Clin Neurol. 2019;162:217-237. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00010-2.
  3. Walløe L, Hjort NL, Thoresen M. Why results from Bayesian Statistical analyses of clinical trials With a strong prior and small sample sizes may be misleading. Acta Paediatric. 2019 Mar 29th. doi:10.1111/apa.14800. (Epub Ahead of print)
  4. Jary S, Lee-Kelland R, Tonks J, Cowan F, Thoresen M, Chakkarapani E. Motor performance and cognitive correlates in children cooled for neonatal encephalopathy without cerebral palsy at School age. Acta Paed 2019 Mar 18. doi:10.1111/apa.14780(Epub)
  5. Tonks J, Lee-Kelland R, Jary S, Cowan F M, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M. Attention and visuo-spatial function in children
    without cerebral palsy who were cooled for neonatal encephalopathy: a case-control study. Taylor & Francis,: doi.10.1080/02699052.2019.1597163
  6. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Brain and whole body cooling. In: MacDonald MG, Ramasethu J, Rais-Bahrami K, editors. Atlas of Procedures in Neonatology. [Book chapter no 45]. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Published 02.Dec.2019.
  7. Wassink G, Gunn A, Davidson J, Dhillon S K, Zhou K, Bennet L, Thoresen M. Therapeutic Hypothermia in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Springer Science Pediatric Neurology doi.10.1007/s11910-019-0916-0.Article
  8. El-Dib M, Inder T, Chalak L, Massaro A, Thoresen M, Gunn A. Should therapeutic hypothermia be offered to babies with
    mild neonatal encephalopathy in the first 6 hours after
    birth? Pediatric Research PR-2018-0802.R1a. doi: 10.1038/s41390-019-0291-1.


  1. Thoresen M. Changing clinical practice With trial evidence – current results from therapeutic hypothermia. Barnlâkaren page 24-25 Nr. 5/18
  2. Walløe L, Hjort N L, Thoresen M. Start cooling as soon as possible. Acta Pædiatrica.: 10.1111/apa.14710
  3. Van Bel F, Hellstrøm-Westas L, Zimmermann L, Buonocore G, Murray D, Saliba E, Thoresen M.
    European Standards of Care for Newborn Health:Postnatal management of newborn infants with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Issued by: European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI). November 2018.2018_Van Bel et al. Postnatl_managmnt_newbrn_infnts_with_hypoxc_ischaemc_encephalopathyHIE. EFCNI
  4. Walløe L, Hjort L N, Thoresen M. Major concern about late hypothermia study.Commentary to: Laptook AR, Shankaran S, Tyson JE, et al. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia initiated after 6 hours of age on death and disability among newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;318(16):1550-1560. Acta Paediatrica e-pub 11 Nov 2018 doi: 10.1111/apa.14640Wall-e_et_al-2018-Acta_Paediatrica (1) (1)
  5. Thoresen M. Combining two good treatments makes it worse. [Commentary on ‘Interaction between hypothermia and delayed mesenchymal stem cell therapy in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury’. Felderhoff-Muser et al, doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.02.006]. Commentary published in Brain Behavior and Immunity 2018 Apr 17. pii: S0889-1591(18)30125-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.04.008. [Epub]
  6. Sabir M, Dingley J, Scull-Brown E, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M. Fentanyl induces cerebellar internal granular cell layer apoptosis in healthy newborn pigs. Frontiers in Neurology, section Pediatric Neurology. April 2018.
  7. . Falck M, Osredkar D, Maes E, Flatebø T, Wood TR, Walløe L, Sabir H, Thoresen M. Hypothermia is Neuroprotective after Severe Hypoxic-Ischaemic Brain Injury in neonatal rats pre-exposed to PAM3CSK4, Developmental Neuroscience Feb 2018. DOI: 10.1159/000487798


  1. Tann CJ, Martinello KA, Sadoo S, Lawn JE, Seale AC, Vega-Poblete M, et al for the GBS Neonatal Encephalopathy Investigator Group. Neonatal Encephalopathy With Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review, Investigator Group Datasets, and Meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases Nov 2017;65(S2):S173–89.
    DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix662
  2. Liu X, Jary S, Cowan F, Thoresen M. Reduced infancy and childhood epilepsy following
    hypothermia-treated neonatal encephalopathy. Epilepsia 1-10,2017 doi: 10.1111/epi.13914online Liu X et al 2017 Epilepsia14586865
  3. Falck et al, Thoresen M. Neonathal Systemic Inflammation Induce Inflammatory Reactions and Brain Apoptosis in a Pathogen Specific Manner. Neonatology Karger AG 2017 DOI: 10.1159/000481980
  4. Skranes J H, Løhaugen G, Schumacher E M, Osredkar D, Server A, Cowan F M, Stiris T, Fugelseth D, Thoresen M.
    Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography Improves the Identification of Infants with Encephalopathy for Therapeutic
    Hypothermia and Predicts Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years of Age. The Journal of Pediatrics 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.poeds.2017.04.041.
  5. Wood T, Hobbs C, Falck M, Brun A C, Løberg E M, Thoresen M.Rectal temperature in the first five hours after hypoxia-ischaemia critically affects neuropathological outcomes in neonatal rats. Pediatric Research 2017. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.51pr201751a
  6. Falck M, Osredkar D, Maes E, Flatebo T, Wood T, Sabir H, Thoresen M. Hypothermic Neuronal Rescue from Infection-sensitised Hypoxic-Ischaemic Brain Injury is Pathogen Dependent. 2017– J Developmental Neuroscience doi:10.1159/000455838.


  1. Basu SK, Salemi JL, Gunn AJ, Kaiser JR, Hyperglycaemia in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is associated with improved outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia: a post hoc analysis of the CoolCap Study.Arch DisChild Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017;102:F299-F306. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2016-311385
  2. Gunn A, Robertson N, Laptook A, Barks J, Thoresen M, Bennet L. Therapeutic hypothermia translates from ancient history, into practice. Pediatric Research Pediatr Res. 2017 Jan;81(1-2):202-209. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.198. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
  3. pr2016198a
  4. Basu Sudeepta K, kaiser J R, Guffey D, Minard C G, Guillet R, Gunn A J – http://Hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia are associated with unfavourable outcome in infants with hypoxic
    ischaemic encephalopathyF149.full
  5. archdischild-2016-311385.full.pd
  6. Moderator: Kochanek, P; Participants: Kitagawa RS, Batchelor P, Thoresen M. Central Nervous System Injury and Temperature Management (meeting proceedings). Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management. July 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/ther.2016.29014.pjk
  7. ther.2016.29014.pjk
  8. Elstad M, Liu X, Thoresen M. Heart rate response to therapeutic hypothermia in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Resuscitation Jun 28;106:53-57. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.06.023.
  9. 1-s2.0-S0300957216301216-main
  10. Sabir H, Wood T, Maes E, Osredkar D, Thoresen M – Xenon combined with Therapeutic Hypothermia is not neuroprotective after severe hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.015675955)SevereHI_Xenon+HT
  11. Wood T, Smit E, Maes E, Osredkar D, Falck M, Elstad M, Thoresen M – Monitoring of cerebral blood flow during hypoxia-ischemia and resuscitation in the neonatal rat using laser speckle imaging. Physiological reports DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12749
  12. e12749-full
  13. Wood T, Osredkar D, Puchades M, Maes E, Falck M, Flatebø T, Walloe L, Sabir H, Thoresen M – Treatment temperature and insult severity influence neuroprotective effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia. Scientifc Reports DOI: 10.1038/srep23430
  14. srep23430
  15. Sabir H, Wood T, Gill H, Liu X, Dingley J, Thoresen M – Xenon depresses aEEG background voltage activity whilst maintaining cardiovascular stability in sedated healthy newborn pigs. Journal of the Neurological Science 2016; doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.02.051
  16. 1-s2.0-S0022510X16301162-main


  1. Hypothermia as a neuroprotective intervention for neonatal encephalopathy.Hypothermia_Bristol_updated_2015.pdf”>Hypothermia_Bristol_updated_2015Hypothermia_Bristol_updated_2015
  2. <> . The Bristol Neonatal Neuroscience Group, Dr J Dingley, Dr E Chakkarapani, Dr E Smit, Prof M Thoresen
  3. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – The Newborn Pig Global Hypoxic-Ischemic Model of Perinatal Brain and Organ Injury. In: Yager JY, editor. Animal Models of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. [Book chapter] 12:171-189 Springer New York, 2015. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2709-8_12 ISBN/ISSN: 9781493927081″
  4. Aquilina K, Thoresen M – A newborn piglet survival model of post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. In: Yager JY, editor. Animal Models of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. [Book chapter] 10:143-157 Springer New York, 2015. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2709-8_10 ISBN/ISSN: 9781493927081
  5. Jary S, Smit E, Liu X, Cowan FM, Thoresen M – Less severe cerebral palsy outcomes in infants treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Acta Paediatrica 2015;104:1241-1247 doi: 10.1111/apa.13146
  6. Jary_et_al-2015-Acta_Paediatrica
  7. Smit E, Liu X, Gill H, Jary S, Wood T, Thoresen M – The effect of resuscitation in 100% oxygen on brain injury in a newborn rat model of severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Resusciation 2015;96:214-219 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.050
  8. Thoresen M and Sabir H – Epilepsy: Neonatal seizures still lack safe and effective treatment. Nature Reviews Neurology 2015;11(6):311-312 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2015.74
  9. Osredkar D, Sabir H, Falck M, Wood T, Maes E, Flatebø T, Puchades M, Thoresen M – Hypothermia does not reverse cellular responses caused by lipopolysaccharide in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Developmental Neuroscience 2015;37:390-397 doi: 10.1159/000430860
  10. Gunn AJ, Thorsesen M – Animal studies of neonatal hypothermic neuroprotection have translated well in to practice. Resuscitation 2015;97:88-90 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.03.026
  11. Whitelaw A, Osredkar D, and Thoresen M – Neurological & Neuromuscular Disorders. In: MacDonald MG, Mullett MD, Seshia MMK, editors. Avery’s Neonatology: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn. [Book Chapter] 46:994-1016 Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. ISBN/ISSN: 9781451192681
  12. Skranes JH, Cowan FM, Stiris T, Fugelseth D, Thoresen M, Server A – Brain imaging in cooled encephalopatic neonates does not differ between four and 11 days after birth. Acta Paediatrica doi: 10.1111/apa.13016
  13. Dingley J, Liu X, Gill H, Smit E, Sabir H, Tooley J, Chakkarapani E, Windsor D, Thoresen M – The feasibility of using a portable xenon delivery device to permit earlier xenon ventilation with therapeutic cooling of neonates during ambulance retrieval. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2015;120(6):1331-1336 doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000693
  14. Liu X, Dingley J, Scull-Brown E, Thoresen M – Adding 5 hours delayed xenon to delayed hypothermia treatment improves long term function in neonatal rats surviving to adulthood. Pediatric Research [E-publication April 2015] doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.49
  15. Hoque N, Liu X, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Minimal systemic hypothermia combined with selective head cooling evaluated in a pig model of hypoxia-ischemia. Pediatric Research [E-publication February 2015] doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.31
  16. Thoresen M – Cooling after perinatal asphyxia. [Editorial] Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2015;20(2):66-71 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2015.01.003
  17. Thoresen M – Who should we cool after perinatal asphyxia? [Review] Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2015;20(2):65 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2015.01.002


  1. Gill H, Thoresen M, Bishop S, Smit E, Liu X, Walloe L, Dingley J – Equipotent subanesthetic concentrations of Sevoflurane and Xenon preventing cold-stimulated vocalization of neonatal rats. Anesthesiology 2014;121(6):1194-1202 doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000423
  2. Wood T, Thoresen M – Physiological responses to hypothermia. [Review] Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2015;20(2);87-96 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2014.10.005
  3. Elstad M, Walløe L, Holme NLA, Maes E, Thoresen M – Respiratory sinus arrythmia stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at high-frequency interval in healthy humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2015;115(3):521-530 doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-3042-3
  4. Sabir H, Walløe L, Dingley J, Smit E, Liu X, Thoresen M – Combined Treatment of Xenon and Hypothermia in Newborn Rats – Additive or Synergistic Effect? PLoS ONE 2014;9(10):e115986 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109845
  5. Smit E, Liu X, Jary S, Cowan F, Thoresen M – Cooling neonates who do not fulfil the standard cooling criteria – short- and long-term outcomes. Acta Paediatrica 2015;104(2):138-145 doi: 10.1111/apa.12784
  6. Gill H, Thoresen M, Smit E, Davis J, Liu X, Dingley J, Elstad M – Sedation management during therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: Atropine premedication for endotracheal intubation causes a prolonged increase in heart rate. Resuscitation 2014;85(10):1394-1398 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.07.002
  7. Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Marlow N, Brocklehurst P, Deierl A, Eddama O, Goodwin J, Halliday HL, Juszczak E, Kapellou O, Levene M, Linsell L, Omar O, Thoresen M, Tusor N, Whitelaw A, Edwards AD, for the TOBY Study Group – Effects of Hypothermia for Perinatal Asphyxia on Childhood Outcomes. The New England Journal of Medicine 2014;371:140-149 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1315788
  8. Smit E, Gill H, Thoresen M – Letter in response to ‘Stridor in Asphyxiated Neonates Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia’ by Orme et al. [Conversation] Pediatrics 2014 [External link to full conversation]
  9. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Animal research has been essential to saving babies’ lives. [Letter] British Medical Journal 2014;348:g4174 doi: 10.1136/bmj.g4174
  10. Chakkarapani E, Davis J, Thoresen M – Therapeutic hypothermia delays the C-reactive protein response and suppresses white blood cell and platelet count in infants with neonatal encephalopathy. ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition [E-publication June 2014] doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-305763
  11. Curtis C et al. – Secretions from placenta, after hypoxia/reoxygenation, can damage developing neurones of brain under experimental conditions. Experimental Neurology 2014;261:386-395 doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.05.003
  12. Dingley J, Tooley J, Liu X, Scull-Brown E, Elstad M, Chakkarapani E, Sabir H, Thoresen M – Xenon Ventilation During Therapeutic Hypothermia in Neonatal Encephalopathy: A Feasibility Study. Pediatrics 2014;133(5):809-818 doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0787
  13. Hoque N, Sabir H, Maes E, Bishop S, Thoresen M – Validation of a neuropathology score using quantitative methods to evaluate brain injury in a pig model of hypoxia ischaemia. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2014;230:30-36 doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.04.005
  14. Skranes JH, Elstad M, Thoresen M, Cowan FM, Stiris T, Fugelseth D – Hypothermia makes cerebral resistance index a poor prognostic tool in encephalopathic newborns. Neonatology 2014;106(1):17-23 doi: 10.1159/000358229
  15. Osmond E, Billetop A, Jary S, Likeman M, Thoresen M, Luyt K – Neonatal seizures: magnetic resonance imaging adds value in the diagnosis and prediction of neurodisability. Acta Paediatrica 2014;103(8):820-826 doi: 10.1111/apa.12583
  16. Smit E, Thoresen M – Xenon as a neuroprotective treatment in neonatal encephalopathy. [Review] Infant 2014;10(1):14-17


  1. Osredkar D, Thoresen M, Maes E, Flatebø T, Elstad M, Sabir H – Hypothermia is not neuroprotective after infection-sensitized neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. Resuscitation 2014;85(4):567-72 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.12.006
  2. Field DM, on behalf of the NEST Sudy Collaborative Group – Neonatal ECMO Study of Temperature (NEST): A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2013;132(5):e1247-1256 doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1754
  3. Jary S, Whitelaw A, Walløe L, Thoresen M – Comparison of Bayley-2 and Bayley-3 scores at 18 months in term infants following neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2013;55(11):1053-1059 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12208
  4. Sabir H, Bishop S, Cohen N, Maes E, Liu X, Dingley J, Thoresen M – Neither Xenon nor Fentanyl Induces Neuroapoptosis in the Newborn Pig Brain. Anesthesiology 2013;119(2):345-357 doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318294934d
  5. Thoresen M, Tooley J, Liu X, Jary S, Fleming P, Luyt K, Jain A, Cairns P, Harding D, Sabir H – Time Is Brain: Starting Therapeutic Hypothermia within Three Hours after Birth Improves Motor Outcome in Asphyxiated Newborns. Neonatology 2013;104(3):228-233 doi: 10.1159/000353948
  6. Chakkarapani E, Dingley J, Aquilina K, Osredkar D, Liu X, Thoresen M – Effects of Xenon and hypothermia on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in newborn global hypoxic–ischemic pig model. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2013;33(11):1752-176 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.123
  7. Smit E, Liu X, Gill H, Sabir H, Jary S, Thoresen M – Factors associated with permanent hearing impairment in infants treated with therapeutic hypothermia. The Journal of Pediatrics 2013;163(4):995-1000 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.06.012
  8. Liu X, Chakkarapani E, Stone J, Thoresen M – Effect of cardiac compressions and hypothermia treatment on cardiac troponin I in newborns with perinatal asphyxia. Resuscitation 2013;84(11):1562-1567 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.07.003
  9. Liu X, Dingley J, Elstad M, Scull-Brown E, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for Sevoflurane and Xenon at normothermia and hypothermia in newborn pigs. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2013;57(5):646-653 doi: 10.1111/aas.12055


  1. Thoresen M, Osredkar D – Brain wave recovery predicts outcome after cardiac arrest. [Editorial] Resuscitation 2013;84(2):145-146 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.11.026
  2. Aquilina K, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Early deterioration of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in a neonatal piglet model of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics 2012;10(6):529-537 doi: 10.3171/2012.8.PEDS11386
  3. Sabir H, Scull-Brown E, Liu X, Thoresen M – Immediate hypothermia is not neuroprotective after severe hypoxia-ischemia and is deleterious when delayed by 12 hours in neonatal rats. Stroke 2012;43(12):3364-3370 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.674481
  4. Thoresen M, Liu X, Jary S, Brown E, Sabir H, Stone J, Cowan F, Karlsson M – Lactate dehydrogenase in hypothermia-treated newborn infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Acta Paediatrica 2012;101(10):1038-1044 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02778.x
  5. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Brain and whole body cooling. In: MacDonald MG, Ramasethu J, Rais-Bahrami K, editors. Atlas of Procedures in Neonatology. [Book chapter] Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. ISBN/ISSN: 9781451144109
  6. Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Linsell L, Hobson A, Juszczak E, Kurinczuk JJ, Brocklehurst P, Edwards AD, on behalf of the UK TOBY Cooling Register – Implementation and Conduct of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Perinatal Asphyxial Encephalopathy in the UK – Analysis of National Data. PLoS ONE 7(6):e38504 [As part of “UK TOBY Cooling Register”] doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038504
  7. Sabir H, Jary S, Tooley J, Liu X, Thoresen M – Increased Inspired Oxygen in the First Hours of Life is Associated with Adverse Outcome in Newborns Treated for Perinatal Asphyxia with Therapeutic Hypothermia. The Journal of Pediatrics 2012;161(3):409-416 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.03.007
  8. Carlsson Y, Wang X, Schwendimann L, Rousset CI, Jacotot E, Gressens P, Thoresen M, Mallard C, Hagberg H – Combined effect of hypothermia and caspase-2 gene deficiency on neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. Pediatric Research 2012;71(5):566-572 doi: 10.1038/pr.2012.15
  9. Dalen ML, Liu X, Elstad M, Løberg EM, Saugstad OD, Rootwelt T, Thoresen M – Resuscitation with 100% oxygen increases injury and counteracts the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia in the neonatal rat. Pediatric Research 2012;71(3):247-252 doi: 10.1038/pr.2011.43


  1. Guillet R, Edwards AD, Thoresen M, Ferriero DM, Gluckman PD, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ, on behalf of the CoolCap Trial Group – Seven- to eight-year follow-up of the CoolCap trial of head cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatric Research 2012;71(2):205-209 doi: 10.1038/pr.2011.30
  2. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M, Liu X, Walløe L, Dingley J – Xenon offers stable haemodynamics independent of induced hypothermia after hypoxia–ischaemia in newborn pigs. Intensive Care Medicine 2012;38(2):316-323 doi: 10.1007/s00134-011-2442-7
  3. Liu X, Tooley J, Løberg EM, Suleiman MS, Thoresen M – Immediate hypothermia reduces cardiac Troponin I after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn pigs. Pediatric Research 2011;70(4):352-356 doi: 10.1038/pr.2011.577
  4. Higgins R et al. – Hypothermia and other treatment options for neonatal encephalopathy: An executive summary of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Workshop. [Review] The Journal of Pediatrics 2011;159(5):851-858 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.08.004
  5. Strohm B, Hobson A, Brocklehurst P, Edwards AD, Azzopardi D, on behalf of the UK TOBY Cooling Register – Subcutaneous fat necrosis after moderate therapeutic hypothermia in neonates. Pediatrics 2011;128(2):e450-452 doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-3508
  6. Hoque N, Thoresen M, Aquilina K, Hogan S, Whitelaw A – Decorin and Colchicine as Potential Treatments for Post-Haemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation in a Neonatal Rat Model. Neonatology 100(3);271-276 doi: 10.1159/000327842
  7. Aquilina K, Thoresen M, Chakkarapani E, Pople IK, Coakham HB, Edwards RJ – Preliminary evaluation of a novel intraparenchymal capacitive intracranial pressure monitor. Journal of Neurosurgery 2011;115(3):561-569 doi: 10.3171/2011.4.JNS101920
  8. Aquilina K, Chakkarapani E, Love S, Thoresen M – Neonatal rat model of intraventricular haemorrhage and post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation with long-term survival into adulthood. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 2011;37(2):156-165 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2010.01118.x
  9. Elstad M, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Cerebral Resistance Index is less predictive in hypothermic encephalopathic newborns. Acta Paediatrica 2011;100(10):1344-1349 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02327.x
  10. Thoresen M – Hypothermia after Perinatal Asphyxia: Selection for Treatment and Cooling Protocol. The Journal of Pediatrics 2011;158(2 Suppl):e45-49 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.11.013


  1. Chakkarapani E, Dingley J, Liu X, Hoque N, Aquilina K, Porter H, Thoresen M – Xenon enhances hypothermic neuroprotection in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Annals of Neurology 2010;68(3):330-341 doi: 10.1002/ana.22016
  2. Liu X, Chakkarapani E, Hoque N, Thoresen M – Environmental cooling of the newborn pig brain during whole-body cooling. Acta Paediatrica 2011;100(1):29-35 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01956.x
  3. Thoresen M – Patient selection and prognostication with hypothermia treatment. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2010(5);15:247-252 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2010.05.008
  4. Thoresen M, Hellström-Westas L, Liu X, de Vries LS – Effect of hypothermia on amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram in infants with asphyxia. Pediatrics 2010;126(1):e131-139 doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2938
  5. Hoque N, Chakkarapani E, Liu X, Thoresen M – A comparison of cooling methods used in therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia. Pediatrics 2010;126(1):e124-130 doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2995
  6. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions for hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy in the full-term infant. In: Lagercrantz H, Hanson MA, Ment LR, Peebles DM, editors. The Newborn Brain – Neuroscience and Clinical Applications, Second edition. [Book chapter] Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN/ISSN: 9780521889759
  7. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Use of hypothermia in the asphyxiated infant. Perinatology 2010;3:20-29
  8. Karlsson M, Wiberg-Itzel E, Chakkarapani E, Blennow M, Winbladh B, Thoresen M – Lactate dehydrogenase predicts hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in newborn infants: a preliminary study. Acta Paediatrica 2010;99(8):1139-1144 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01802.x
  9. Edwards AD, Brocklehurst P, Gunn AJ, Halliday H, Juszczak E, Levene M, Strohm B, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Azzopardi D – Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data. BMJ 2010;340:C363 doi: 10.1136/bmj.c363


  1. Rutherford M, Ramenghi LA, Brocklehurst P, Halliday H, Levene M, Strohm B, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Azzopardi D – Assessment of brain tissue injury after moderate hypothermia in neonates with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy: a nested substudy of a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology 2010;9(1):39-45 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70295-9
  2. Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Edwards AD, Dyet L, Halliday HL, Juszczak E, Kapellou O, Levene M, Marlow N, Porter E, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Brocklehurst P, for the TOBY Study Group – Moderate Hypothermia to Treat Perinatal Asphyxial Encephalopathy. The New England Journal of Medicine 2009;361(14):1349-1358 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0900854
  3. Strohm B, Azzopardi D, on behalf of the UK TOBY Cooling Register Study Group – Temperature control during therapeutic moderate whole-body hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. ADC Fetal & Neonatal editon 2010;95(5):F373-375 doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.163816
  4. Chakkarapani E, Harding D, Stoddart P, Garrett-Cox R, Thoresen M – Therapeutic hypothermia: surgical infant with neonatal encephalopathy. Acta Paediatrica 2009;98(11):1844-1846 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01470.x
  5. Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M, Hobbs CE, Aquilina K, Liu X, Dingley J – A closed-circuit neonatal Xenon delivery system: A technical and practical neuroprotection feasibility study in newborn pigs. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2009;109(2):451-460 doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181aa9550
  6. Liu X, Borooah M, Stone J, Chakkarapani E, Thoresen M – Serum gentamicin concentrations in encephalopathic infants are not affected. Pediatrics 2009;124(1):310-315 doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2942
  7. Karlsson M, Satas S, Stone J, Porter H, Thoresen M – Liver enzymes cannot be used to predict liver damage after global hypoxia-ischemia in a neonatal pig model. Neonatology 2009;96(4):211-218 doi: 10.1159/000215591
  8. Battin MR, Thoresen M, Robinson E, Polin RA, Edwards DA, Gunn AJ, on behalf of the Cool Cap Trial Group – Does head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia affect requirement for blood pressure support? Pediatrics 2009;123(3):1031-1036 doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1610
  9. Thoresen M, Hobbs CE, Wood T, Chakkarapani E, Dingley J – Cooling combined with immediate or delayed xenon inhalation provides equivalent long-term neuroprotection after neonatal hypoxia–ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2009;29(4):707-714 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2008.163
  10. Tucker AM, Aquilina K, Chakkarapani E, Hobbs CE, Thoresen M – Development of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and interburst interval in the rat. Pediatric Research 2009;65(1):62-66 doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181891316


  1. Thoresen M – Supportive care during neuroprotective hypothermia in the term newborn: adverse effects and their prevention. Clinics in Perinatology 2008;35(4):749-763, vii doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2008.07.018
  2. Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Edwards AD, Halliday H, Juszczak E, Levene MI, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Brocklehurst P – Treatment of asphyxiated newborns with moderate hypothermia in routine clinical practice: how cooling is managed in the UK outside a clinical trial. ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 2009;94(4):F260-264 doi: 10.1136/adc.2008.146977
  3. Aquilina K, Hobbs C, Tucker A, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Do drugs that block transforming growth factor beta reduce posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation in a neonatal rat model? Acta Paediatrica 2008;97(9):1181-1186 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00903.x
  4. Karlsson M, Tooley JR, Satas S, Hobbs CE, Chakkarapani E, Stone J, Porter H, Thoresen M – Delayed hypothermia as selective head cooling or whole body cooling does not protect brain or body in newborn pig subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. Pediatric Research 2008;64(1):74-78 doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318174efdd
  5. Hoehn T, Hansmann G, Bührer C, Simbruner G, Gunn AJ, Yager J, Levene M, Hamrick SEG, Shankaran S, Thoresen M – Therapeutic hypothermia in neonates. Review of current clinical data, ILCOR recommendations and suggestions for implementation in neonatal intensive care units. [Review] Resuscitation 2008;78(1):7-12 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.04.027
  6. Azzopardi D, Brocklehurst P, Edwards D, Halliday H, Levene M, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, for the TOBY Study Group – The TOBY Study. Whole body hypothermia for the treatment of perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics 2008;8:17 doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-17
  7. Gunn AJ, Hoehn T, Hansmann G, Bührer C, Simbruner G, Yager J, Levene M, Hamrick SEG, Shankaran S, Thoresen M – Hypothermia: an evolving treatment for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. [Letter to the editor] Pediatrics 2008;121(3):648-649 doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3310
  8. Dingley J, Hobbs C, Ferguson J, Stone J, Thoresen M – Xenon/hypothermia neuroprotection regimes in spontaneously breathing neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic insult: the respiratory and sedative effects. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2008;106(3):916-923 doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181618669
  9. Hobbs C, Thoresen M, Tucker A, Aquilina K, Chakkarapani E, Dingley J – Xenon and hypothermia combine additively, offering long-term functional and histopathologic neuroprotection after neonatal hypoxia/ischemia. Stroke 2008;39(4):1307-1313 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.499822


  1. Gunn AJ, Wyatt JS, Whitelaw A, Barks J, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards D, Ferriero DM, Gluckman PD, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, on behalf of the CoolCap Study Group – Therapeutic hypothermia changes the prognostic value of clinical evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. The Journal of Pediatrics 2008;152(1):55-58 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.06.003
  2. Aquilina K, Hobbs C, Cherian S, Tucker A, Porter H, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – A neonatal piglet model of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Journal of Neurosurgery 2007;107(2 Suppl Pediatrics):126-136 doi: 10.3171/PED-07/08/126
  3. Gressens P, Dingley J, Plaisant F, Porter H, Schwendimann L, Verney C, Tooley J, Thoresen M – Analysis of neuronal, glial, endothelial, axonal and apoptotic markers following moderate therapeutic hypothermia and anesthesia in the developing piglet brain. Brain Pathology 2008;18(1):10-20 doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2007.00095.x
  4. Wyatt JS, Gluckman PD, Liu PY, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ, for the CoolCap Study Group – Determinants of outcomes after head cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatrics 2007;119(5):912-921 doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-2839
  5. Whitelaw A, Evans D, Carter M, Thoresen M, Wroblewska J, Mandera M, Swietlinsk J, Simpson J, Hajvassiliou C, Hunt LP, Pople I – Randomized clinical trial of prevention of hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: brain-washing versus tapping fluid. Pediatrics 2007;119(5):e1071-1078 doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-2841


  1. Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Azzopardi D, Renowden S, Edwards AD, Rutherford MA – Does Oxygen concentration used for resuscitation influence outcome of asphyxiated newly born infants treated With hypothermia? In Reply. [Correspondence] Pediatrics 2006;117(6):2328 doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0718
  2. Vexler ZS, Sharp FR, Feuerstein GZ, Ashwal S, Thoresen M, Yager JY, Ferriero DM – Translational stroke research in the developing brain. [Review] Pediatric Neurology 2006;34(6):459-463 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.10.015
  3. Gunn AJ, Thoresen M – Hypothermic neuroprotection. [Review] NeuroRx 2006;3(2):154-169 doi: 10.1016/j.nurx.2006.01.007
  4. Higgins R et al. – Hypothermia and perinatal asphyxia: Executive summary of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop. [Review] The Journal of Pediatrics 2006;148(2):170-175 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.12.009


  1. Dingley J, Tooley J, Porter H, Thoresen M – Xenon provides short-term neuroprotection in neonatal rats when administered after hypoxia-ischemia. Stroke 2006;37(2):501-506 doi: 10.1161/
  2. Rutherford MA, Azzopardi D, Whitelaw A, Cowan F, Renwoden S, Edwards AD, Thoresen M – Mild hypothermia and the distribution of cerebral lesions in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics 2005;116(4):1001-1006 doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0328
  3. Gunn AJ, Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Thoresen M, Edwards AD, on behalf of the CoolCap Study Group – Selective head cooling after neonatal encephalopathy. [Correspondence] The Lancet 2005;365:1619-1620
  4. Tooley JR, Eagle RC, Satas S, Thoresen M – Significant head cooling can be achieved while maintaining normothermia in the newborn piglet. ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 2005;90(3):F262-266 doi: 10.1136/adc.2003.044305
  5. Thoresen M, Whitelaw A – Therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in the newborn infant. [Review] Current Opinion in Neurology 2005;18(2):111-116
  6. Sävman K, Nilsson UA, THoresen M, Kjellmer I – Non-protein-bound iron in brain interstitium of newborn pigs after hypoxia. Developmental Neuroscience 2005;27(2-4):176-184 doi: 10.1159/000085990
  7. Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ, on behalf of the CoolCap Study Group – Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial. The Lancet 2005;365(9460):663-670 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17946-X


  1. Cherian S, Thoresen M, Silvert IA, Whitelaw A, Love S – Transforming growth factor-betas in a rat model of neonatal posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 2004;30(6):585-600 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2004.00588.x
  2. Cherian S, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M, Love S – The pathogenesis of neonatal post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Brain Pathology 2004;14(3):305-311
  3. Whitelaw A, Cherian S, Thoresen M, Pople I – Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: new mechanisms and new treatment. Acta Paediatrica Supplement 2004;93(444):11-14 doi: 10.1080/08035320310020986


  1. Satas S, Løberg EM, Porter H, Whitelaw A, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Effect of global hypoxia-ischaemia followed by 24 h of mild hypothermia on organ pathology and biochemistry in a newborn pig survival model. Biology of the Neonate 2003;82(3):146-156 doi: 10.1159/000067958
  2. Fugelseth D, Satas S, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, and patent ductus arteriosus during therapeutic cooling after global hypoxia-ischaemia. ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 2003;88(3):F223-228 doi: 10.1136/fn.88.3.F223
  3. Erecinska M, Thoresen M, Silver IA – Effects of hypothermia on energy metabolism in Mammalian central nervous system. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2003;23(5):513-530 doi: 10.1097/01.WCB.0000066287.21705.21
  4. Whitelaw A, Pople I, Cherian S, Evans D, Thoresen M – Phase 1 trial of prevention of hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in newborn infants by drainage, irrigation, and fibrinolytic therapy. Pediatrics 2003;11(4Pt1):759-765 doi: 10.1542/peds.111.4.759
  5. Cherian SS, Love S, Silver IA, Porter HJ, Whitelaw AGL, Thoresen M – Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation in the neonate: development and characterization of a rat model. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2003;62(3):292-303
  6. Tooley J, Satas S, Porter H, Silver IA, Thoresen M – Head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia in anesthetized piglets is neuroprotective. Annals of Neurology 2003;53(1):65-72 doi: 10.1002/ana.10402


  1. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions for hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy in the full-term infant. In: Lagercrantz H, Hanson MA, Ment LR, Peebles DM, editors. The Newborn Brain – Neuroscience and Clinical Applications, First edition. [Book chapter] Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  2. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Clinical trials of treatments after perinatal asphyxia. [Review] Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2002;14(6):664-668
  3. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M, Pople I – Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. [Review] ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 2002;86:F72-74 doi: 10.1136/fn.86.2.F72
  4. Sävman K, Blennow M, Hagberg H, Tarkowski E, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A – Cytokine response in cerebrospinal fluid from preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Acta Paediatrica 2002;91(12):1357-1363
  5. Thoresen M – Chapter 14. Thermal influence on the aphyxiated newborn. In: Donn SM, Sinha S, Chiswick M, editors. Birth Asphyxia and the Brain: Basic Science and Clinical Implications. Armonk, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
  6. Tooley J, Satas S, Eagle R, Silver IA, Thoresen M – Significant selective head cooling can be maintained long-term after global hypoxia ischemia in newborn piglets. Pediatrics 2002;109(4):643-649 doi: 10.1542/peds.109.4.643


  1. Blennow M, Sävman K, Ilves P, Thoresen M, Rosengren L – Brain-specific proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid of severely asphyxiated newborn infants. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90(10):1171-1175 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2001.tb03249.x
  2. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Clinical experience with therapeutic hypothermia in asphyxiated infants. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2001;43(s89):30-31 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2001.tb04146.x
  3. Thoresen M, Satas S, Løberg EM, Whitelaw A, Acolet D, Lindgren C, Penrice J, Robertson N, Haug E, Steen PA – Twenty-four hours of mild hypothermia in unsedated newborn pigs starting after a severe global hypoxic-ischemic insult is not neuroprotective. Pediatric Research 2001;50(3):405-411 doi: 10.1203/00006450-200109000-00017
  4. Thoresen M, Simmonds M, Satas S, Tooley J, Silver IA – Effective selective head cooling during posthypoxic hypothermia in newborn piglets. Pediatric Research 2001;49(4):594-599 doi: 10.1203/00006450-200104000-00024


  1. Thoresen M – Protecting the perinatal brain. [Editorial] Seminars in Neonatology 2000;5(1):1-2 doi: 10.1053/siny.1999.0117
  2. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Antenatal steroids and the developing brain. [Review] ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 2000;83(2):F154-157 doi: 10.1136/fn.83.2.F154
  3. Thoresen M – Cooling the newborn after asphyxia – physiological and experimental background and its clinical use. Seminars in Neonatology 2000;5(1)61-73 doi: 10.1053/siny.1999.0118
  4. Thoresen M, Whitelaw A – Cardiovascular changes during mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics 2000 Jul;106(1 pt 1):92-99 doi: 10.1542/peds.106.1.92
  5. Satas S, Hoem NO, Melby K, Porter H, Lindgren CG, Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Influence of mild hypothermia after hypoxia-ischemia on the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in newborn pigs. Biology of the Neonate 2000;77(1):50-57


  1. Thoresen M – Cooling the asphyxiated brain – ready for clinical trials? [Review] European Journal of Pediatrics 1999;158(Suppl 1):S5-8 DEC
  2. Fugelseth D, Satas S, Runde M, Hågå P, Thoresen M – Cardiac function and morphology studied by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in unsedated newborn pigs. Experimental Physiology 1999;84(1):69-78 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-445X.1999.tb00073.x


  1. Bona E, Hagberg H, Løberg EM, Bågenholm R, Thoresen M – Protective effects of moderate hypothermia after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia: short- and long-term outcome. Pediatric Research 1998;43(6):738-745 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199806000-00005
  2. Thoresen M, Hallström Å, Whitelaw A, Puka-Sundvall M, Løberg EM, Satas S, Ungerstedt U, Steen PA, Hagberg H – Lactate and pyruvate changes in the cerebral gray and white matter during posthypoxic seizures in newborn pigs. Pediatric Research 1998;44(5):746-754 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199811000-00018
  3. Amess PN, Penrice J, Howard S, Thoresen M, Edwards AD, Cady EB, Wyatt JS, Sams V – Organ pathology following mild hypothermia used as neural rescue therapy in newborn piglets. Biology of the Neonate 1998;73(1):40-46
  4. Edwards AD, Wyatt JS, Thoresen M – Treatment of hypoxic-ischaemic brain damage by moderate hypothermia. [Review] ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 1998;78(2):F85-88


  1. Wyatt JS, Thoresen M – Hypothermia Treatment and the Newborn. [Commentary] Pediatrics 1997;100(6):1028-1030 doi: 10.1542/peds.100.6.1028
  2. Haaland K, Løberg EM, Steen PA, Thoresen M – The effect of mild post-hypoxic hypothermia on organ pathology in a piglet survival model of global hypoxia. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine 1997;2:329-337
  3. Thoresen M, Satas S, Puka-Sundvall M, Whitelaw A, Hallström Å, Løberg EM, Ungerstedt U, Steen PA, Hagberg H – Post-hypoxic hypothermia reduces cerebrocortical release of NO and excitotoxins. Neuroreport 1997;8(15):3359-3362
  4. Thoresen M, Bågenholm R, Løberg EM, Apricena F, Kjellmer I – Posthypoxic cooling of neonatal rats provides protection against brain injury. In: Fanaroff AA, Maisels JM, Stevenson DK, editors. The Year book of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine 1997. [Book chapter] Chicago: Mosby, 1997
  5. Thoresen M, Wyatt J – Keeping a cool head, post-hypoxic hypothermia–an old idea revisited. [Review] Acta Paediatrica 1997;86(10):1029-1033 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb14799.x
  6. Satas S, Johannesen SI, Hoem NO, Haaland K, Sørensen DR, Thoresen M – Lidocaine pharmacokinetics and toxicity in newborn pigs. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1997;85(2):306-312
  7. Amess PN, Penrice J, Cady EB, Lorek A, Wylezinska M, Cooper CE, D’Souza P, Tyszczuk L, Thoresen M, Edwards AD, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR – Mild hypothermia after severe transient hypoxia-ischemia reduces the delayed rise in cerebral lactate in the newborn piglet. Pediatric Research 1997;41(6):803-808 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199706000-00002
  8. Haaland K, Løberg EM, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Posthypoxic hypothermia in newborn piglets. Pediatric Research 1997;41(4 Pt 1):505-512 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199704000-00009
  9. Thoresen M, Henriksen O, Wannag E, Lægreid L – Does a sedative dose of chloral hydrate modify the EEG of children with epilepsy? Electroencephalography and clinical Neurophysiology 1997;102(2):152-157


  1. Thoresen M, Haaland K, Løberg EM, Whitelaw A, Apricena F, Hankø E, Steen PA – A piglet survival model of posthypoxic encephalopathy. Pediatric Research 1996;40(5):738-748 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199611000-00014
  2. Haaland K, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Cerebral, tympanic and colonic thermometry in the piglet. Reproduction, fertility and development 1996;8(1):125-128
  3. Satas S, Haaland K, Thoresen M, Steen PA – MAC for halothane and isoflurane during normothermia and hypothermia in the newborn piglet. Acta Anaestesiologica Scandinavica 1996;40(4):452-456
  4. Thoresen M, Penrice J, Lorek A, Wyatt J, Cady EB, Wylezinska M, Kirkbridge V, Cooper C, Edwards D, Bron G, Reynolds EOR – Mild hypothermia following severe transient hypoxia-ischemia ameliorates delayed (secondary) cerebral energy failure in the newborn piglet. In: Fanaroff AA, Klaus MH, editors. The Year Book of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine [Book chapter] Mosby: Philadelphia(?), 1996.
  5. Haaland K, Hofstad J, Apricena F, Thoresen M – Haemoglobin is inversely related to plasma lactate and heart rate in the newborn piglet. Biology of the Neonate 1996;69(5):350-356
  6. Thoresen M, Bågenholm R, Løberg EM, Apricena F – The stress of being restrained reduces brain damage after a hypoxic-ischaemic insult in the 7-day-old rat. Neuroreport 1996;7(2):481-484
  7. Thoresen M, Bågenholm R, Løberg EM, Apricena F, Kjellmer I – Posthypoxic cooling of neonatal rats provides protection against brain injury. ADC Fetal & Neonatal edition 1996;74(1):F3-9


  1. Thoresen M, Penrice J, Lorek A, Cady EB, Wylezinska M, Kirkbride V, Cooper CE, Brown GC, Edwards AD, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR – Mild hypothermia after severe transient hypoxia-ischemia ameliorates delayed cerebral energy failure in the newborn piglet. Pediatric Research 1995;37(5):667-670 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199505000-00019
  2. Haaland K, Orderud WJ, Thoresen M – The piglet as a model for cerebral circulation: an angiographic study. Biology of the Neonate 1995;68(1):75-80
  3. Edwards AD, Mehmet H, Yue X, Squier MV, Lorek A, Thoresen M, Cady E, Penrice J, Wylezinska M, Kirkbride V, Cooper C, Brown G, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR – Apoptosis and necrosis in the cingulate gyrus of anaesthetised newborn piglets following transient hypoxia-ischaemia, and the effect of mild post-insult hypothermia. Early Human Development 1995;41(3):227-228
  4. Haaland K, Karlsson B, Skovlund E, Lagercrantz H, Thoresen M – Postnatal development of the cerebral blood flow velocity response to changes in CO2 and mean arterial blood pressure in the piglet. Acta Paediatrica 1995;84(12):1414-1420 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1995.tb13579.x
  5. Edwards AD, Yue X, Squier MV, Thoresen M, Cady EB, Penrice J, Cooper CE, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR, Mehmhet H – Specific inhibition of apoptosis after cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia by moderate post-insult hypothermia. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1995;217(3):1193-1199 doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.2895


  1. Haaland K, Karlsson B, Skovlund E, Thoresen M – Simultaneous measurements of cerebral circulation with electromagnetic flowmetry and Doppler ultrasound velocity in the newborn pig. Pediatric Research 1994;36(5):601-606 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199411000-00011
  2. Thoresen M, Haaland K, Steen PA – Cerebral Doppler and misrepresentation of flow changes. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1994;71(2):F103-106
  3. Thoresen M – Women Physiologists. [Book review] BMJ 1994;308:1173-1174 doi: 10.1136/bmj.308.6937.1173


  1. Whitelaw A, Thoresen M – Ethical dilemmas around the time of birth. In: Gillon R, Lloyd A, editors. Principles of Health Care Ethics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1993


  1. Haaland K, Thoresen M – Krybbedød, leie og temperatur. [Review] Tidsskrift for Den norske lægeforening 1992;112(11):1466-1470
  2. Thoresen M, Dahlin I, Lundberg JM, Lagercrantz H – Neuropeptide Y and catecholamine release in the piglet during hypoxia: enhancement by theophylline. Journal of Developmental Physiology 1992;18(4):187-191
  3. Thoresen M, Cowan F, Walløe L – Cardiovascular responses to tilting in healthy newborn babies. In: Klaus MH, Fanaroff AA, editors. The Year Book of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine [Book chapter] Mosby: Chicago, 1992.
  4. Thoresen M, Cowan F – Dinamap blood pressure measurements in the newborn: how many–what effects? Acta Paediatrica 1992;81(3):272-273 doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1992.tb12222.x


  1. Whitelaw A, Karlsson BR, Haaland K, Dahlin I, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Hypocapnia and cerebral ischaemia in hypotensive newborn piglets. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1991;66(10 Spec No):1110-1114
  2. Thoresen M, Cowan F, Walløe L – Cardiovascular responses to tilting in healthy newborn babies. Early Human Development 1991;26(3):213-222
  3. Cowan F, Thoresen M, Walløe L – Arm and leg blood pressures–are they really so different in newborns? Early Human Development 1991;26(3):203-211


  1. Fried G, Thoresen M, Samuelsson U – Effects of Neuropeptide Y and Noradrenaline on the Uterine Artery. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1990;611:439-441 doi: 10.1016/0167-0115(90)90059-6
  2. Thoresen M, Whitelaw A – Effect of acetazolamide on cerebral blood flow velocity and CO2 elimination in normotensive and hypotensive newborn piglets. Biology of the Neonate 1990;58(4):200-207
  3. Bergslien O, Thoresen M, Ødemark H – De effecten van drie elektrotherapeutische methoden op de bloedstroomsnelheid in menselijke perifere arteriën. Stimulus 1990;9(4):227-228
  4. Fried G, Thoresen M – Effects of neuropeptide Y and noradrenaline on uterine artery blood pressure and blood flow velocity in the pregnant guinea-pig. Regulatory Peptides 1990;28(1):1-9 doi: 10.1016/0167-0115(90)90059-6


  1. Fried G, Thoresen M, Samuelsson U – Coexistence of neuropeptide y and noradrernaline in the reproductive tract. Fertility, Sterility and Contraception 1989;69-74


  1. Thoresen M, Wesche J – Doppler measurements of changes in human mammary and uterine blood flow during pregnancy and lactation. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1988;67(8):741-745 doi: 10.3109/00016349809004301
  2. Bergslien O, Thoresen M, Ødemark H – The effects of three electrotherapeutic methods on blood velocities in human peripheral arteries. Scandinavian journal of rehabilitation 1988;20(1):29-33
  3. Thoresen M, Cowan F, Whitelaw A – Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1988;63(3):315-317


  1. Cowan F, Thoresen M – The effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cerebral arterial and venous blood velocities in the newborn infant. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1987;76(2):239-247
  2. Ellingsen I, Hauge A, Nicolaysen G, Thoresen M, Walløe L – Changes in human cerebral blood flow due to step changes in PAO2 and PACO2. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1987;129(2):157-163 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1987.tb08054.x


  1. Cowan F, Thoresen M – The Effects of Interruption to the Cranial Venous Outflow on Cerebral Haemodynamics in the Newborn Infant. In: Rolfe P, editor. Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements. Butterworth, London, 1986.
  2. Janbu T, Koss KF, Thoresen M, Wesche J – Doppler measurements of changes in blood velocities to the female breast during lactation. In: Jung H, Fendel H, editors. Doppler techniques in obstetrics. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1986.


  1. Janbu T, Koss KS, Thoresen M, Wesche J – Blood velocities to the female breast during lactation and following oxytocin injections. Journal of Developmental Physiology 1985;7(6):373-380
  2. Cowan F, Thoresen M – Changes in superior sagittal sinus blood velocities due to postural alterations and pressure on the head of the newborn infant. Pediatrics 1985;75(6):1038-1047


  1. Thoresen M, Walløe L – Intracranial haemorrhage in the preterm sheep fetus. [Letter to the editor] Early Human Development 1984;10:149-156


  1. Hauge A, Nicolaysen G, Thoresen M – Acute effects of acetazolamide on cerebral blood flow in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1983;117(2):233-239 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1983.tb07202.x
  2. Cowan F, Eriksen M, Thoresen M – An evaluation of the plethysmographic method of measuring cranial blood flow in the new-born infant. Journal of Physiology 1983;335:41-50
  3. Cowan F, Thoresen M – Ultrasound study of the cranial venous system in the human new-born infant and the adult. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1983;117(1):131-137 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1983.tb07187.x


  1. Thoresen M – Doppler ultrasound flowmetry: A new method in circulation research as applied in studies on skin and cerebral circulation. [PhD thesis] University of Oslo, 1982


  1. Thoresen M, Walløe L – Cerebral blood flow measured by ultrasound. In: Jageneau A, editor. Noninvasive Methods in Cardiovascular Haemodynamics. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical, 1981.


  1. Thoresen M, Walløe L – Skin blood flow in humans as a function of environmental temperature measured by ultrasound. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1980;109(3):333-341 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1980.tb06604.x
  2. Hauge A, Thoresen M – Changes in cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation and CO2-breathing measured transcutaneously in humans by a bidirectional, pulsed, ultrasound doppler blood velocitymeter. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1980;110(2):167-173 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1980.tb06647.x
  3. Guldvog I, Kjærnes M, Thoresen M, Walløe L – Blood flow in arteries determined transcutaneously by an ultrasonic doppler velocitymeter as compared to electromagnetic measurements on the exposed vesels. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1980;109(2):211-216 doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1980.tb06588.x


  1. Thoresen M – Kap. 15: Seksualkunnskap hos de unge. In: Walløe L, editor. Seksualitet, familieplanlegging og prevensjon i Norge. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1978.

Selected abstracts

  • Thoresen M, Bona E, Løberg E, Baagenholm R, Hagberg H – Post hypoxic-ischemic (HI) hypothermia gives long term functional and neuropathological protection in female neonatal rats but not in males. [Abstract] Pediatric Research 1997;41:182-183 doi: 10.1203/00006450-199704001-01098 [External link]
  • Satas S, Porter H, Urdal P, Steen PA, Thoresen M – Mild hypothermia (HT) after global hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult reduces the Creatinine (Cr) rise and increases Sodium loss. [Abstract] Pediatric Research 1999;45:337A doi: 10.1203/00006450-199904020-02003 [External link]